Space Scavenger Key
Download ⚙ DOWNLOAD
Space Scavenger Key
a new idea to detect cancer biomarkers and tumor development is the employment of circulating tumor cells (ctcs). ctcs are rare cells that are shed by primary tumors and can be found in the blood of patients with metastatic tumors. therefore, ctcs can be used as a liquid biopsy for the early detection of cancer and to identify patients that are at risk of recurrence or metastatic disease 80, 87 . the study of ctcs during space missions is of vital importance to prevent the recurrence of the disease in astronauts and for the early detection of cancer 87 . on the iss, ctc detection could be performed by specialized devices that have been recently developed to detect and analyze ctcs in blood samples 80 . the assessment of endogenous antioxidant levels in ctcs could be performed by the quantification of mrna 80 . in turn, the measurement of ros levels in ctcs could be performed by the analysis of ros produced by the tumor cells. however, it is important to note that the analysis of ros levels in ctcs could be biased by ros produced by the blood components and the environment in which the tumor cell floats. therefore, new methods to detect ros in ctcs should be investigated 86 .
nanotechnology is a promising field that allows the development of smart biosensors for the detection of multiple biomarkers by employing novel materials and nanostructures. however, the precise characterization of the space environment is difficult because of the lack of control over various external factors, such as solar radiation, solar wind, microgravity, and galactic cosmic radiation 103 .
over the past decade, the space environment has greatly affected our lives. long-duration space missions will be more common in the near future. although humans can adapt to changes in the earth’s environment, this adaptation is much more difficult in the microgravity and the radiation environment of space. the aim of this perspective review is to highlight the importance of developing genetic diagnostics for astronauts to better comprehend their genetic susceptibility to ros damage and its consequences. this could lead to the development of individualized preventive medicine and the personalized administration of antioxidants to prevent ros-induced chronic diseases. a better understanding of the genetic basis of astronauts’ susceptibility to ros damage and its consequences on space exploration could lead to the development of individualized preventive medicine and the personalized administration of antioxidants to prevent ros-induced chronic diseases. this will help prepare astronauts for and treat astronauts after they face the extreme environment of space. additionally, it will also help protect the health of our astronauts and future explorers.
over the past decades, there have been several major space exploration missions. examples include: space shuttle missions such as sts-93 and sts-114; the mariner 9 mission to venus; and deep space one (dso) missions to study comets; the crewed space station (cst-100), with a soyuz/progress flights to ferry crews and cargo; and the international space station (iss), which has been continuously occupied since 1998.
each of these missions has its own unique characteristics that must be considered in the development of future missions. however, we think that a possible solution to overcome some of the challenges of the missions currently in use is to base on a habitable space station, which would have its own unique and permanent crewed, exploration, and research capabilities. a space station also allows the human body to perform and simulate more than just the space flight environment, which could contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of human health under space flight 10 .